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Title: Vegetative Anatomy of the New Caledonian Endemic Amborella trichopoda: Relationships with the Illiciales and Implications for Vessel Origin 
Author: Carlquist, Sherwin; Schneider, Edward L
Date: 2001-07
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Carlquist S, Schneider EL. 2001. Vegetative anatomy of the new Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin. Pac Sci 55(3): 305-312.
Abstract: Light microscopy was used to study leaf hypodermis, vein sclerenchyma,
stomatal subsidiary cell types, and stem and root xylem in liquid-preserved
material of Amborella trichopoda; oblique borders on tracheid pits, scalariform
end walls on tracheids, and porosities in end-wall pit membranes were studied
with scanning electron microscopy. Amborella shares stomatal configurations,
nodal type (in part), ray types, and porose pit membranes in tracheary elements
with llliciaies s.l., but differs from that order in lacking oil cells, vessels, and
grouped axial parenchyma cells. These data are consistent with a basal position
in angiosperms for Amborella, and for a close relationship with, but not inclusion
in, llliciales; inclusion in a monofamilial order is conceivable. Both loss of pit
membranes or pit membrane portions on end walls and increase in cell diameter
are requisites for origin of vessels. Sarcandra and Illiciaceae show these early
stages in origin of vessels; Amborella shows development of porosities in pit
membranes. Vessel presence or absence may not be strictly bipolar, because
some primitive vessel elements exhibit at least some tracheidlike characteristics
and are thus transitional, and because changes in at least two characters define
vessel origin.
ISSN: 0030-8870
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/2455

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