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Title: Relationship of resource uncertainties to abatement costs 
Date: 1980s
Citation: Relationship of resource uncertainties to abatement costs.
Abstract: Geothermal resources around the world have characteristics that vary widely. With respect to H2S, the quantity of H2S in the vapor phase (steam) can vary from a few parts per million to a few percent. This wide variation in chemical composition is even found over relatively small geographic areas. In The Geysers resource area of California, for example, the H2S concentrations for individual wells are from 40 ppm to over 1500 ppm and the average concentrations in the steam entering plants varies from approximately 45 ppm to over 400 ppm (almost 10 to 1) as shown in Table-l is based upon information contained in the Dames and Moore report. In fact, PG&E Units 3 and 1 are located less than one mile from each other and have H2S concentrations that vary by a factor of more than 2.4 to 1 (445 ppm vs. 185 ppm). Units 3 and 14 are located less than 2-1/2 miles apart, and the concentrations vary by a factor of 6.6 to 1 (445 ppm vs. 70 ppm). The ammonia in the steam, a major factor in the amount of partitioning, can vary just as significantly as the H2S. Thus, it is likely that H2S and ammonia concentrations at different locations in the Island of Hawaii will vary significantly from the values found at the HGP-A well. Even greater differences can be expected at locations on other islands within the State of Hawaii. Further, as shown in Table 6.1-2 of the Dames and Moore report, the H2S concentrations for a given group of wells can increase and decrease significantly over the life of the wells.The variations in expected H2S and ammonia concentration that occur with differences in geographic location and those that occur over the life of the wells can have significant impact upon the performance and cost of abatement systems. The cost impact is illustrated by the following examples based totally upon the Dames & Moore estimates.
Description: Publication date uncertain Chapter 56 of Volcanism in Hawaii, edited by Decker, Robert W.; Wright, Thomas L.; Stauffer, Peter H. "Attachment B" (relevant article is "H2S abatement cost overview at the geysers," which was "Attachment C").
Pages/Duration: 5 pages
Keywords: hydrogen sulfide, impacts, technology, Hawaii

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