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Title: Simultaneous Removal of Carbon and Nitrogen by Using a Single Bioreactor for Land Limited Application 
Author: Cao, Keping
Date: 1998-05
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Cao K. 1998. Simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen by using a single bioreactor for land limited application. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Abstract: An Entrapped-Mixed-Microbial-Cell (EMMC) process was investigated for its simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen in a single bioreactor with the influent COD/N ratio varying from 4 to 15 and influent alkalinity of 140 mg CaCO3/L and 230 mg CaCO3/L. The reactor was operated with alternate schedules of intermittent aeration. Two different sizes of carriers (10 * 10 * 10 mm3 and 20 * 20 * 20 mm3) were studied.
The medium carrier (10 * 10 * 10 mm3) system presents higher nitrogen removal and COD removal compared to the large carrier system. The nitrogen removal efficiency is related to the ratio of COD/N in the influent. With the increase of the COD/N ration in the influent, the nitrogen removal efficiency is increased.
The average reductions of nitrogen were over 92% and the average reductions of SCOD and BOD5 are over 95% and 97%, respectively, in the medium carrier system. This is operated at the HRT of 12 hours and 0.5 hour aeration and 2 hours of non-aeration, and the COD/N ratio of 15 in the influent. Changing alkalinity from 140 to 230 mg CaCO3/L has no effect in both large and medium carriers for the nitrogen removal efficiency.
The pH, oxidation – reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were used to monitor the biological nitrogen removal. It was found that the ORP (range from -100 to 300 mV) can be used to provide better effluent quality measured as total-nitrogen of less than 10 mg/L. Also, the impact of influent COD/N ratio on the effluent quality (measured as Inorg.-nitrogen) for the EMMC process is very important.
Compared to other two compact biological wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), the EMMC process with the intermittent aeration has higher removal efficiencies of carbon and nitrogen, easier operation, lower O&M cost, lower energy requirement, and more compact. The total cost requirement is less than $3.27 per 1000 gallons (3.785 m 3) of treated settled domestic sewage per day. It is apparent that the EMMC process is technically feasible for the simultaneous removal of carbon and nitrogen under the operation on a schedule of intermittent aeration and suitable to be used for replacement or upgrading of existing treatment plant at land limited area.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Unedited Reports.
1998-07
Pages/Duration: xv + 156 pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/22230
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
LC Subject Headings: Sewage--Purification--Biological treatment.
Sewage--Purification--Aeration.
Sewage--Purification--Nitrogen removal.
Bioreactors.

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