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Title: Copula variability in Hawai'i Creole 
Author: Inoue, Aya
Date: 2008
Description: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008. Finally, regarding the debate over the Creole Hypothesis, although HC does not share common substrate languages with Caribbean English-lexified creoles, the same hierarchical ordering (_gonna > _V+ ing > _Loc > _Adj > NP) is robustly found in HC. The HC data suggests that the explanation for this hierarchy argued for by some proponents of the Creole Hypothesis, that the presence of a creole copula in a certain environment leads to a low rate of copula absence in the decreolizing variety, does not work for HC data. Second, three lect groups (basilectal, mesolectal, and acrolectal) are examined to see if their speech is comprised of a single system or of multiple co-existing systems. In general, there were no significantly different patterns observed for the three lect groups although the three groups have very different frequencies of copula absence. Therefore there appears to be no different lects in the HC creole continuum. This research investigates copula variability in Hawaii Creole (HC) employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Based on sociolinguistic interviews with eighty HC speakers, descriptive and theoretical issues concerning the HC continuum are investigated. Speakers are stratified by their age, gender, and residential area. As for linguistic constraints, overall, HC shows very similar patterns to those found in African American Vernacular English and in other creoles. Social and linguistic conditioning in copula variability suggests that it is in urban O'ahu that age and gender are playing the most significant role. Overall, quantitative analyses of social factors indicate a gap between urban O'ahu and other residential areas. Three issues concerning the creole continuum are addressed. First, in light of the possible change in current HC and its directionality, analysis of the overall pattern in HC speech does not suggest evidence of a significant change in progress. However, in some cases there are patterns that are partially suggestive of both change towards standard English and change not in the direction of standard English. The findings for HC are in line with other studies which suggest that it is not likely that a single, simple dimension entirely explains variable linguistic behavior. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 157-161). Reproduction. Also available by subscription via World Wide Web 161 leaves, bound 29 cm
ISBN: 9780549600503
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/20679
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.

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