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Title: Teacher-learner negotiation in a content-based KSL classroom 
Author: Hong, Jong Myung
Date: 2008
Description: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008. Additionally, many factors related to the negotiation of meaning were observed in the study, such as: (1) learners' L2 proficiency, (2) task type, (3) topic familiarity, (4) learners' L1 background, and (5) cultural background. Although some trends confirmed by previous studies were observed, the students' L2 proficiency did not appear to be a crucial factor affecting the amount of negotiation of meaning. This indicates that other factors had a greater influence than did the learners' proficiency level in affecting the amount of negotiation in the classroom, namely, 'talkativeness.' The results show that the task type was a strong factor in the elicitation of the negotiation of meaning in an L2 classroom. Classroom discussions employed in this study were more effective than other tasks. Consequently, classroom discussions offered ample opportunities for the negotiation of meaning. The data indicates that the negotiation frequency was related to the topic familiarity. In this study, there was a higher frequency of negotiation during conversations on familiar topics as opposed to conversations that dealt with unfamiliar topics. The results also confirm that a learner's L1 background and cultural background affected the negotiation frequency and style that occurred in the L2 classroom. First, the findings regarding the negotiation process revealed that nearly all trouble sources resulted from students' utterances. Trouble sources by students were identified and categorized into two main types, "students' linguistic resource deficits" and "students' inappropriate language use." With regard to signals, the data revealed that signal types are closely related to the trouble source types preceding the signal. The signals were divided into two categories, "teacher-initiated signals" and "student-initiated signals" which indicated students' trouble sources. Regarding the responses, the types of responses are divided into two main viii categories, "teacher response followed by student-initiated signal" and "student response followed by teacher-initiated signals." Lastly, a characteristic of this study is that student elicited negotiation of meaning focused on vocabulary rather than grammar due to the communicative value. The communicative value was an important factor in determining which aspects of language would be acquired through negotiation. Secondly, the results showed that the three conditions necessary for SLA were provided in the negotiation of meaning process. Comprehensible input was provided in negotiation when the teacher or students adjusted their utterances to make them more comprehensible to an interlocutor. Production of modified output occurred when students uttered in response to signals of trouble source or feedback from the teacher. Attention to form was also evident in negotiations when students received positive or negative input from the teacher and modified their output. The negotiated interaction, in which two people interact to attain mutual understanding when communication breakdowns take place, is referred to as "negotiation of meaning." While many studies have been conducted to explore the negotiation of meaning from diverse perspectives, there are few studies that have investigated the naturally occurring negotiation of meaning in the L2 classroom, especially in the field of less commonly taught languages. This dissertation investigates the negotiation of meaning between the teacher and students in a content-based Korean as a second language (KSL) classroom. Through the analysis of teacher-learner negotiations from the data, this study explores the following questions: (1) How are negotiations carried out between a teacher and students in a content-based KSL classroom? and (2) How do negotiations in a content-based KSL classroom provide learners with conditions necessary for second language acquisition? Includes bibliographical references (leaves xxx-xxx). Also available by subscription via World Wide Web 212 leaves, bound 29 cm
ISBN: 9780549780762
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/20518
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.

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