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Title: WRRCTR No. 163 Improved Emitter and Network System for Wastewater Reuse in Drip Irrigation 
Author: McDonald, Donald R.; Lau, L. Stephen; Wu, I-Pai; Gee, Henry K.; Young, Stephen C.H.
Date: 1984-07
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: McDonald DR, Lau LS, Wu I-P, Gee HK, Young SCH. 1984. Improved emitter and network system for wastewater reuse in drip irrigation. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 163.
Abstract: The problem of emitter (orifice) plugging inherent in drip irrigation
systems was investigated. Plugging not only reduces the effectiveness of
this most water conservative method but also excludes the use of low quality
waters unless first processed with costly water treatment. A problem-solution
approach was used to develop simple emitters and a network system
that would minimize plugging to acceptable levels. Tests using secondary
treated municipal effluent from the Mililani Wastewater Treatment Plant on
Oahu, Hawaii, consisted of numerous plugging experiments supplemented by
theoretical and laboratory studies. Tests showed that plugging, up to
25% or less, can be controlled by using size emitters and passing the
effluent through a stationary 40- and 80-mesh screen; critical-size emitters
are 0.03 in. for microjets and 0.019 in. for monotubes; higher operating
pressure further reduces plugging percentages; flexible 0.15 in.
slit orifices (at 15 psi) perform as well as the critical size rigid
orifice but another round flexible orifice (rubber tube) was less successful;
a multiple-inlet network design with critical-size emitters can minimize
pressure and emitter flow variations along the drip laterals and was
ideal for systems with large flow rates; and plugging was attributed to
particles and fibers in the effluent.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Report
Sponsorship: U.S. Department of the Interior, Grant/Contract No. C10073-R (14-34-0001-1464)
Pages/Duration: x + 87 pages
Keywords: drip irrigation, network design, orifices, water quality, municipal wastewater, wastewater reuse, emitter plugging, Mililani Wastewater Treatment Plant, Oahu, Hawaii
LC Subject Headings: Microirrigation.
Sewage irrigation.

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