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dc.contributor.author Dugan, Gordon L en_US
dc.contributor.author Ekern, Paul C en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2008-07-17T22:45:38Z en_US
dc.date.available 2008-07-17T22:45:38Z en_US
dc.date.issued 1984-05 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Dugan GL, Ekern PC. 1984. Chemical constituents of rainfall at different locations on Oahu, Hawaii. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 160. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/1994 en_US
dc.description.abstract Rainfall sampling, which began in 1981 before the 1982 to 1983 El Niño and continued into 1984 on Oahu in Hawaii, represented sites with widely different rainfall amounts. Samples stored under refrigeration prior to analysis were analyzed for pH and for the major cations, chloride and sulfate, and the nitrogen series. For the stored samples, the rainiest site was acidic with median pH 4.9, and rainfall weighted pH 4.77. Samples analyzed immediately on receipt at the laboratory had median acidity of pH 4.2 and rain-weighted pH 4.22. Samples that included sane cloud water had acidity with a median pH 5.1 and rainfall weighted pH 5.17. Samples taken before and after the eruption of El Chichon in April 1982 showed no apparent effect of the stratospheric sulfur on rainfall acidity. Electrical conductivity of the rainfall was equivalent to cation concentrations of 1 to 10 milliequivalents per liter. Chloride, a major cation, decreased with distance from the ocean sources. Sulfate values in the rainwater increased during southerly flow when Kilauea volcano was erupting, so that the sulfate to chloride ratio increased to tenfold that for seawater. Organic nitrogen forms made up about 40% of the total nitrogen content of the rainfall, and calculated organic-N loadings from the annual rainfall had values from 4.39 to 1.62 kg/ha/yr. The pH values of 4.2 to about 5.0 support the contention that the acidity in naturally occurring rainfall in remote areas has a pH slightly below 5.0. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship U.S. Department of the Interior Grant/contract No. CT371300-371303 en_US
dc.format.extent vii + 25 pages en_US
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries WRRC Technical Report en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries 160 en_US
dc.subject acid rainfall en_US
dc.subject chemistry of precipitation en_US
dc.subject nitrogen compounds en_US
dc.subject organic nitrogen en_US
dc.subject sulfur cycle en_US
dc.subject tropic zone en_US
dc.subject El Chichon en_US
dc.subject Kilauea volcano en_US
dc.subject Oahu en_US
dc.subject Hawaii Island en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Acid rain -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Rain and rainfall -- Hawaii -- Oahu -- Sampling. en_US
dc.title WRRCTR No.160 Chemical Constituents of Rainfall at Different Locations on Oahu, Hawaii en_US
dc.type Report en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US

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