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Title: Tephritid Fruit Fly Populations in a Dragonfruit Orchard in Hawaii: Border Plant Use and Infestation Rate 
Author: McQuate, Grant T.
Date: 2010-12
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (2010) 42: 41–48
Abstract: Dragonfruit, Hylocereus undatus, has been grown commercially in Southeast Asia, Australia, South America, Israel, and the United States. In Hawaii, commercial fruit production has recently begun, based on newly introduced varieties. Dragonfruit originating from Vietnam but intercepted in Japan has been found to be infested by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae. Because both of these tephritid fruit fly species are present in Hawaii, there is risk of infestation by these species in Hawaii, and fruit export requires postharvest quarantine treatment for disinfestation. For dragonfruit production in Hawaii intended both for local sales and for export, there is a need to better understand the risk of infestation and to develop approaches to minimize chances of infestation. In support of the development of dragonfruit as a commercial crop in Hawaii, a dragonfruit orchard on the east side of the island of Hawaii was monitored over the 2007–2008 fruiting seasons in order to
document the levels and spatial distribution of tephritid fruit fly field populations and the level of infestation, and to develop approaches for suppression of infestation. Low population levels (< 0.25 flies/trap/day) of both tephritid fruit fly species were present both seasons, with population detection most successful in traps placed in roosting host plants along the orchard border rather than within the orchard. Based on random fruit collections near the end of the production seasons, infestation rate in mature fruits increased from 4.1% and 6.1% (2007) to 28.0% and 8.0% (2008) for oriental fruit fly and melon fly, respectively. Approach to field suppression in this crop, which lacks host foliage, is discussed.
Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Hylocereus undatus

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