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Title: WRRCTR No.177 Drinking Water Quality Determination: An Evaluation of New Methods of Analysis 
Author: Fujioka, Roger S.; Nakasone, Samuel S.; Kungskulniti, Nipapun
Date: 1987-09
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Fujioka RS, Kungskulniti N, Nakasone SS. 1987. Drinking water quality determination: an evaluation of new methods of analysis. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 177.
Abstract: The most recent edition of Standard Methods proposes the use of the presence-absence (P-A) test to assay
drinking waters for coliform bacteria and the membrane filtration (MF) method using two new media
(m-HPC, R2A) to determine the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water samples.
These two methods were used to analyze selected samples of Honolulu's drinking water which were
being routinely analyzed for coliform bacteria and total heterotrophic bacteria tested by traditional
methods from the Honolulu Board of Water Supply (BWS) and the Hawaii State Department of Health
(DOH). Over a thirteen-month period, 200 water samples obtained by the BWS and 18 samples obtained
by DOH were also analyzed for coliform bacteria using the P-A test and for total heterotrophic bacteria
using the MF method by the laboratory at the University of Hawaii. The comparative results show that
the P-A test is more sensitive than the most probable number (MPN) (P <0.01) and the MF methods
(P <0.05) in recovering coliform bacteria. Moreover, the MF method using either the m-HPC or R2A
media is more efficient in recovering total heterotrophic bacteria than the pour plate method (P <0.01).
The P-A test for coliform bacteria and the MF method for total heterotrophic bacteria were determined
to be feasible and reliable methods when applied to drinking water samples from Honolulu. These two
new methods were recommended for use by the BWS and DOH.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Report
Description: Board of Water Supply City and County of Honolulu Grant/Contract No. T-380
Pages/Duration: viii + 57 pages
Keywords: drinking water, water quality, bacterial analysis, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform tests, presence-absence test, membrane filtration method, standard plate count, m-HPC, R2A media
LC Subject Headings: Drinking water -- Analysis -- Technique.
Drinking water -- Standards -- Hawaii -- Oahu.
Water -- Microbiology.
Water quality -- Measurement -- Hawaii -- Oahu.

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