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dc.contributor.author Besnier, Niko en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2010-11-12T20:59:01Z en_US
dc.date.available 2010-11-12T20:59:01Z en_US
dc.date.issued 2009 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Besnier, N. 2009. Modernity, Cosmopolitanism, and the Emergence of Middle Classes in Tonga. The Contemporary Pacific 21 (2): 215-262. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1043-898X en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/18513 en_US
dc.description.abstract The formation of social classes in Pacific Islands societies and in their diasporas continues to raise theoretical questions about the nature of social classes and their relationship to prior forms of social organization. In Tonga, middle classes both reproduce aspects of the older rank-based system with which they continue to coexist and innovate new forms of acting and being, many of which emerged with the diasporic explosion of the society. While “middle-classness” is fragile and shifting, it is constituted by four important characteristics: an intense awareness of the extralocal; a valorization of consumption; multiple modes of livelihood; and the commoditization of structures of reciprocity. These characteristics form a basis for comparison of Tongan middle classes with non–middle classes locally and with middle classes in other societies of the Pacific and beyond. en_US
dc.format.extent 48 p. en_US
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher University of Hawai‘i Press en_US
dc.publisher Center for Pacific Islands Studies en_US
dc.subject social class, diaspora, modernity, cosmopolitanism, consumption, commoditization, Tonga en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Oceania -- Periodicals en_US
dc.title Modernity, Cosmopolitanism, and the Emergence of Middle Classes in Tonga en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US

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