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Notes on Status and Ecology of the Endangered Hawaiian Annual Awiwi, Centaurium sebaeoides (Gentianaceae)
|Title:||Notes on Status and Ecology of the Endangered Hawaiian Annual Awiwi, Centaurium sebaeoides (Gentianaceae)|
|Authors:||Medeiros, Arthur C.|
Chimera, Charles G.
Loope, Lloyd L.
Joe, Stephanie M.
Krushelnycky, Paul D.
|Issue Date:||Oct 2000|
|Publisher:||University of Hawai'i Press|
|Citation:||Medeiros AC, Chimera CG, Loope LL, Joe SM, Krushelnycky PD. 2000. Notes on status and ecology of the endangered Hawaiian annual Awiwi, Centaurium sebaeoides (Gentianaceae). Pac Sci 54(4): 417-422.|
|Abstract:||The annual, endemic, coastal herb Centaurium sebaeoides is the
only native Hawaiian species in the gentian family. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service listed it as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act on 29 October
1991. Before surveys reported here, the total population of this species
statewide was estimated at 80-110 individuals in eight populations. During
counts made in April and May 1997, following ample winter rains, 12 populations
of C. sebaeoides with a total of 6300-6600 plants were noted on five
islands (Kaua'i, O'ahu, Lana'i, Moloka'i, and Maui). Five populations were
mapped with a global positioning system and counted; in the remaining seven
populations, the numbers of individuals were estimated. More recent surveys in
1998-1999 estimated a total of only 60-80 individuals at all sites. Such dramatic
population fluctuations are believed to be related to the sporadic occurrence
of winter rains. Threats that further contribute to the rarity of the species
include (1) displacement and overtopping by salt-tolerant nonnative woody species,
especially Casuarina spp., (2) trampling and erosion of habitat by ungulates,
and (3) damage caused by off-road vehicles.
|Appears in Collections:||Pacific Science Volume 54, Number 4, 2000|
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