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Title: Bruguiera Species in Hawai'i: Systematic Considerations and Ecological Implications 
Author: Allen, James A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Duke, Norman C.; Herbst, Derral R.; Bjorkman, Olle; Shih, Connie
Date: 2000-10
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Allen JA, Krauss KW, Duke NC, Herbst DR, Bjorkman O, Shih C. 2000. Bruguiera species in Hawai'i: systematic considerations and ecological implications. Pac Sci 54(4): 331-343.
Abstract: At least two mangrove tree species in the genus Bruguiera were
introduced into Hawai'i from the Philippines in 1922. The two are described in
the most current manual on the flora of Hawai'i as B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk.
and B. parviflora (Roxb.) W. & A. ex. Griff. There has, however, been some
confusion since its introduction as to the identity of what is currently known
as B. gymnorrhiza. Early Hawaiian flora manuals (1948 and earlier) and
ecological research reports up until at least 1972 referred to the species as B.
sexangula (Lour.) Poir. Flora manuals published after 1948 and recent ecological
papers describe the species as B. gymnorrhiza. The reason for the change
appears to have been based strictly on an assessment of flower color. In this
study we collected specimens of Bruguiera from Hawai'i and known samples
of B. sexangula, B. gymnorrhiza, and B. exaristata C. G. Rogers from Australia
or Micronesia. Based on a multivariate comparison of flower and hypocotyl
morphology of this material, an assessment of other diagnostic attributes, and
amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) mapping, we conclude
that the primary, and perhaps only, Bruguiera species present in Hawai'i is B.
sexangula. We argue that the current distribution of Bruguiera in Hawai'i fits
the pattern that might be expected of B. sexangula, which is less salt tolerant
than B. gymnorrhiza. We also conclude that sufficient regional variation occurs
to warrant morphological and genetic comparisons of the three species across
their whole geographic range.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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