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Title: Aspects of the age and growth, reproduction, and diet of the millet-seed butterflyfish, Chaetodon miliaris (Pisces: Chaetodontidae), an Hawaiian endemic 
Author: Ralston, Stephen
Date: 1975-12
Publisher: University of Hawai‘i, Honolulu
Citation: Ralston, Stephen. Aspects of the age and growth, reproduction, and diet of the millet-seed butterflyfish, Chaetodon miliaris (Pisces: Chaetodontidae), an Hawaiian endemic. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1975.
Abstract: Aspects of the growth, reproduction and diet of Chaetodon
miliaris, the millet-seed butterflyfish, were studied in an effort to
characterize populations of fish exploited by the aquarium fish industry.
Age determinations were accomplished by examination of daily
growth rings within otoliths. Age estimates were corroborated by
growth experiments, analysis of a size-frequency distribution, and
the determination of the onset of reproductive maturity. Estimates
of the duration of the larval tholichthys stage were also obtained
from study of the otoliths.
The sex ratio of £. miliaris was 1:1 and individuals matured
after one year of growth. The spawning season extended from November
through Hay but peaked in February and March. No lunar influence on
spawning was found. Estimates of fecundity were high and indicated a
relatively large investment in reproduction.
Chaetodon miliaris is broadly opportunitistic in its diet, however it
feeds principally on zooplankton in the water column. The
diet of individual fish varied as a function of the time of year, the
collection location and the size of the fish.
Individuals from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, were small and appeared to be
reproductively inactive when compared to fish from other areas.
Dietary deficiencies are postulated as causing these differences.
The overexploitation of populations of the millet-seed butterflyfish
as a fisheries resource is improbable due to its fast growth,
high fecundity, and the existence of refuge populations.
Description: Thesis for the degree of Master of Science (University of Hawaii at Manoa). Typescript. Bibliography: leaves [93]-102.
Pages/Duration: 98 pages
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
LC Subject Headings: Chaetodon miliaris.

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