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Title: Defensive Responses of Marine Gastropods (Prosobranchia, Trochidae) to Certain Predatory Seastars and the Dire Whelk, Searlesia dira (Reeve) 
Author: Hoffman, Daniel L.
Date: 1980-07
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Hoffman DL. 1980. Defensive responses of marine gastropods (Prosobranchia, Trochidae) to certain predatory seastars and the dire whelk, Searlesia dira (Reeve). Pac Sci 34(3): 233-243.
Abstract: Qualitative comparisons of the predator-induced defensive behaviors
of four species of trochid gastropod, Margarites pupillus, M. salmoneus,
M. rhodia, and Calliostoma ligatum, under controlled laboratory
conditions indicate that the degree and strength of the response varies
according to the sensory information received from a predator and according
to the species of predatory seastar or gastropod inducing the response.
Generally, all four species of gastropod demonstrate a weak to moderate
avoidance response to the scent of such predatory seastars as Leptasterias
hexactis and Pisaster ochraceus; whereas direct contact with their soft parts
elicits strong and often violent defensive behaviors characterized by shell
twisting, propodial rearing which often leads to a loss of contact with the
substrate, and somersaulting by metapodial thrusting. It is hypothesized that
the inversion of the shell induced by direct contact with a predator sets up the
metapodial thrusting behavior and also part of the righting repertoire, which
facilitates more rapid flight from the predator. Margarites spp. respond to the
scent and contact with the dire whelk, Searlesia dira; whereas Calliostoma is
unresponsive to the snail, but more responsive to the scent and contact of the
sunstar Pycnopodia helianthoides than are the other species of gastropods
ISSN: 0030-8870

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