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Title: Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Aspects of Sophora Sect. Edwardsia (Papilionaceae) 
Author: Pena, R.C.; Iturriaga, L.; Montenegro, G.; Cassels, B.K.
Date: 2000-04
Publisher: University of Hawai'i Press
Citation: Pena RC, Iturriaga L, Montenegro G, Cassels BK. 2000. Phylogenetic and biogeographic aspects of Sophora sect. Edwardsia (Papilionaceae). Pac Sci 54(2): 159-167.
Abstract: Sophora comprises 45-50 species of worldwide distribution, but
no general proposal as to the evolution of this group has been put forth. We
used cladistic relationships of the quinolizidine alkaloids (matrine, sparteine,
methylcytisine, anagyrine, and sophoranol) with morphological and palynological
characters to suggest a hypothesis of evolutionary and biogeographic relationships.
The mainland Chilean species of Sophora appear to have been derived
from' ancestors phylogenetically near the extant Argentinean species S.
linearifolia and S. rhynchocarpa and the psammophyte S. tomentosa, growing
at tropical coastal sites around the world. The Boreotropic hypothesis of Lavin
and Luckow is incorporated in our model as the most parsimonious explanation
of the evolution of the species of Edwardsia. Sophora is a taxonomic group
that meets the following criteria: a center of diversity in North America, an
early Tertiary record in North America, and a pantropical distribution. Styphnolobium
and Sophora (including Calia) are representatives of Sophora s.l. in
the United States, suggesting a migration of the latter from the Northern Hemisphere
to South America. Consistent with the Boreotropic hypothesis, a primary
diversification center in South America and subsequent migration to the
Indian Ocean and New Zealand, the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Easter
Island, and possibly the Hawaiian Islands is the simplest explanation for the
evolution of the Edwardsia species.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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