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Title: Birds of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Author: Berger, Andrew J
Date: 1972-08
Publisher: Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program
Citation: Berger AJ. 1972. Birds of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Honolulu (HI): Island Ecosystems IRP, U.S. International Biological Program. International Biological Program Technical Report, 8.
Abstract: The dominant and subdominant plants are listed for 10 major vegetational and climatic areas within Volcanoes National Park. These areas are located at elevations between 1,400 and 10,000 feet. Information on the birds found in eight of the 10 areas during the late 1940s is available in the paper by Baldwin (1953); two of Baldwin's study plots are not included in the IBP transects, but data on the birds in these plots from 1970-1972 are included in this report. Notable differences between bird populations in the 1940s and the early 1970s are: 1. The apparent disappearance from the Park of two species of rare and endangered honeycreepers: Akiapolaau and Ou; 2. An apparent disappearance of the Apapane from certain low-elevation habitats; 3. A decrease in the range, and probably in population density, of the Elepaio; 4. The disappearance of the Hawaiian Thrush from at least two plots at low elevations; 5. A reversal in density of the Red-billed Leiothrix and the Japanese White-eye. The White-eye was first recorded in certain regions of the Park between 1940 and 1944. It now is found at nearly all levels
and in all habitats within the Park from sea level to above tree line, and it is now the most common exotic species in the Park. The Red-billed Leiothrix is now common in suitable habitat, but population density probably is lower than during the 1940s.
6. The Hawaiian Goose now occurs regularly within Park boundaries, especially during the breeding season; the species was close to extinction during the 1940s and was not seen by Baldwin. The discovery that the Apapane sometimes build nests in collapsed lava tubes is discussed. That this type of nesting behavior is not rare is suggested because it was found on Mt. Hualalai and at three widely separated sites on Mauna Loa. At least three species of Plasmodium, the protozoan parasite that causes bird malaria, have been identified in the blood of one endemic (Apapane) and two introduced (Leiothrix and White-eye) species of birds in Volcanoes National Park. Studies on the mosquito vector for Plasmodium are needed.
Baldwin's (1953) thorough study of the insect food of the Amakihi, Apapane, and Iiwi is summarized, as is his discussion of the phenology of the tree species whose flowers provide nectar for the honeycreepers. The need for contemporary observations on the relationship of the Iiwi to lobeliad flowers is noted.
Series/Report No.: International Biological Program Technical Report
8
Description: Reports were scanned in black and white at a resolution of 600 dots per inch and were converted to text using Adobe Paper Capture Plug-in.
Pages/Duration: 49 pages
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/15272
Keywords: Apapane, Amakihi, Iiwi, Red-billed Leiothrix, Japanese White-eye, Plasmodium, Elepaio
LC Subject Headings: Birds -- Hawaii -- Hawaii Island.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Hawaii)

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