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Title: WRRCTR No.48 Direct Determination of the Electromagnetic Reflection Properties of Smooth Brackish Water to the Continuous Spectrum from 108 to 4 x 109 Hertz 
Author: Lepley, Larry K.; Adams, William M.
Date: 1971-05
Publisher: Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Citation: Lepley LK, Adams WM. 1971. Direct determination of the electromagnetic reflection properties of smooth brackish water to the continuous spectrum from 108 to 4 x 109 Hertz. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 48.
Abstract: A new geophysical technique for the remote measurement of the electromagnetic properties of natural surfaces was investigated. Theoretical and laboratory work has produced evidence for the validity of the use of ultra-high frequency radio reflection spectrometry for remote sensing of salinity of brackish water. A preliminary study of the electromagnetic properties of aqueous sodium chloride, computer-generated frequency dispersion curves of 1) the dielectric coefficients, 2) power reflectance, 3) brightness temperature, and 4) skin depth of water as a function of eight different formalities of sodium chloride, corresponding to a salinity range from pure to ocean water and as a function of five different6 temperatures from 0°C to 40°C to the radio frequency range from 106 to 3 X 1010 Hertz were constructed. These graphs indicate that the frequency dispersion of the reflectance of radio energy in the 106 to 106 Hertz band at normal incidence to a smooth water surface is strongly influenced by the salinity of the water, and that the spectral signature could be used as a measure of water salinity as distinguished from water temperature.
Series/Report No.: WRRC Technical Reports
Sponsorship: OWRR Project No. B-015-HI, Grant Agreement No. 14-31-0001-3073
Pages/Duration: x + 86 pages
LC Subject Headings: Brackish waters -- Remote sensing.
Electromagnetic measurements.
Reflectance spectroscopy.
Salinity -- Remote sensing.

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