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Title: Occurrence and Distribution of Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Public Health Importance on the Island of Oahu 
Author: Leong, Mark KH; Grace, J Kenneth
Date: 2009-12-01
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Leong MKH, Grace JK. 2009. Occurrence and distribution of bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of public health importance on the island of Oahu. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 41:71–78.
Abstract: The Vector Control Branch of the Hawaii State Department of Health has accumulated a large volume of written inspection data on pests of public health for the island of Oahu. Bee complaints provided the fourth greatest amount of arthropod pest information available, following mosquito, other fly and flea complaints. The objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of the occurrence of bee complaints on Oahu over a 10 year period, determine their distribution over time, graphically compare bee occurrence within and between district/areas, and correlate bee occurrence and distribution with season. Bee data were drawn from inspection reports from 1990-1999, population information was obtained from Hawaii Census and State of Hawaii Data Books, 125 district/area geographic locations were defined, and bee occurrence and distribution were adjusted for population and mapped using ArcView GIS 3.2. Reported bee activity was found mostly within the central, south and east urban districts. The eastern half of south Oahu and the southern half of the east districts showed the highest number of complaints. The levels of bee activity were highest during the spring, summer and fall, and there were bee problems around the airport throughout the year. The primary bee species recorded was Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the honey bee. The main sources of bee problems were A. mellifera swarms, and bee hives established in urban areas from wild or domestic hives. Bee activity regularly occurs in urban areas as a result of past and present human activities. As a result, injury from bee stings is possible, especially in the eastern half of south Oahu and the southern half of the east districts from spring through fall when swarming activity is highest. The results indicate that educational programs should be carried out in late winter, and that residential bee surveys may be concentrated in a limited number of district/areas.
Pages/Duration: 8 pages
ISSN: 0073-134X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/14439
Keywords: Apis mellifera, Hawaii, honey bees, insect bites and stings, Oahu, seasonal variation, spatial distribution

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