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Title: Hawaiian Monk Seal Pupping Locations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 
Author: Westlake, Robin L.; Gilmartin, William G.
Date: 1990-10
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Westlake RL, Gilmartin WG. 1990. Hawaiian monk seal pupping locations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 44(4): 366-383.
Abstract: Most births of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus
schauinslandi, occur in specific beach areas in the Northwestern Hawaiian
Islands. Data collected from 1981 to 1988 on the locations of monk seal births
and of the first sightings of neonatal pups were summarized to identify preferred
birth and nursery habitats. These areas are relatively short lengths of beach at
the breeding islands and have some common characteristics, of which the primary
feature is very shallow water adjacent to the shoreline. This feature, which
limits access by large sharks to the water used by mother-pup pairs during the
day, should enhance pup survival.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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