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Title: A New and Primitive Barnacle (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) from the North Fiji Basin Abyssal Hydrothermal Field, and Its Evolutionary Implications 
Author: Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Newman, William A.
Date: 1990-04
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Yamaguchi T, Newman WA. 1990. A new and primitive barnacle (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) from the north Fiji Basin abyssal hydrothermal field, and its evolutionary implications. Pac Sci 44(2): 135-155.
Abstract: A new sessile barnacle, Eochionelasmus ohtai, n. gen., n. sp., has
been discovered associated with an abyssal hydrothermal vent at 1990m depth in
the North Fiji Basin, Southwest Pacific. The genus is distinguished from its
closest and bathyal relative, Chionelasmus, in having distinct, multiple whorls of
basal imbricating plates. These and other characters render it the most primitive
living member of the suborder Balanomorpha. Knowledge of the organization of
its shell, and of the ontogeny of the shell wall in Chionelasmus, profoundly alters
our understanding of the evolution of balanomorph barnacles, and a new
hypothesis is proposed. Two previously described abyssal hydrothermal barnacles
also proved to represent the most primitive living members of their suborder
s: Scalpellomorpha and Verrucomorpha. It may be puzzling why three such
antiquated morphologies should have persisted in association with abyssal
hydrothermal springs while their antecedents became extinct elsewhere. However,
barnacles are noted f(or their adaptability to a wide range of habitats
including rigorous environments such as estuaries, the highest intertidal, and the
effluent from power plants. The notable feature here, in contrast to their conservative
but distinctly different shell morphologies, is the uniquely convergent
adaptation of their setose feeding mechanism to vent-related food sources.
ISSN: 0030-8870

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