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Title: Demographic Studies on Hawaii's Endangered Tree Snails: Partulina proxima 
Author: Hadfield, Michael G; Miller, Stephen E
Date: 1989-01
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Citation: Hadfield MG, Miller SE. 1989. Demographic studies on Hawaii's endangered tree snails: Partulina proxima. Pac Sci 43(1): 1-16.
Abstract: Populations of the tree snail Partulina proxima, endemic to higher
elevations of Molokai, Hawaiian Islands, were studied for 3 years. Analyses of
the data derived from 17bimonthly mark-recapture events determined that each
tree harbors a small, mostly nonmigratory population of 8-26 snails of which
2-4 are adults; the snails average 4.2 mm long at birth and 21.3 mm long when
growth stops; growth is slow, with maturity reached in 5-7 years; annual
fecundity averages 6.2 offspring per adult; and mortality is about 98% over the
first 4 years of life. Given the high rate of juvenile mortality, adult snails must
reproduce for at least 12 years to replace themselves. From this we calculate a
minimum maximal life-span of 18-19 years. We conclude that the current high
rate of unexplained juvenile mortality, combined with lat e age at first reproduction
and low fecundity, place this species at very high risk to any sort of
perturbation, particularly any selective predation on adults.
ISSN: 0030-8870
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/1197

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