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Title: The relationship of prenatal and first year postnatal variables to personality factors in children in mid-childhood 
Author: Hedemann, Nancy Oakley
Date: 1969
Publisher: [Honolulu]
Abstract: PROBLEM: A naturalistic study of the relationship of prenatal and first-year postnatal variables and personality factors in children was designed to reveal long-range effects on the socialization of Kauai children at age twelve. No clear definition of a theoretical position was stated, though the method implied a relationship to a trait theory of human behavior and social learning theory. METHOD: Thirteen predictors were selected from variables collected by the Kauai Pregnancy Study in Hawaii in 1955 to be correlated with 11 personality factors and Need for Referral of children. Three hundred fifty six children comprised the sample studies; ethnic composition was 35% Japanese, 23% Part-Hawaiian, 19% Filipino, Other 23%. Using the Hawaii Scales for Judging Child Behavior, 17 teachers rated their entire sixth grade class. A three-dimensional model of parental attitudes was related to a three-dimensional model of child behavior to develop the following hypotheses. SOCIALIZATION HYPOTHESES: 1. Prenatal attitude of parents toward the pregnancy will relate positively to child factors, Friendliness, Ego Strength, Work Competence, Compliance and negatively to Relational Insecurity. 2. Maternal Capacity Factor I (Responsibility) will relate positively to Ego Strength, Compliance, Work Competence and negatively to Tension. 3. Maternal Capacity Factor II (Harsh Control) will relate negatively to Friendliness, Ego Strength, Compliance and positively to Relational Insecurity. 4. Age of mother at delivery and maternal education will relate positively to Friendliness, Ego Strength, Work Competence. 5. Separation from mother during first year and Illegitimacy will relate negatively to Friendliness and Ego Strength, positively to Relational Insecurity. 6. Socio-economic level will relate positively to Compliance. 7. Number of children in household under age five will relate negatively to Friendliness, Ego Strength, Work Competence and Compliance. 8. Japanese parentage will relate positively to Ego Strength, Work Competence, Compliance. 9. Part-Hawaiian and Filipino parentage will relate negatively to Ego Strength, Work Competence, Compliance. FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT HYPOTHESES: 1. Male sex will relate positively to Dominance and Activity. 2. Maternal education will relate positively and number of children under age five will relate negatively to Brightness and Creativity. EMOTIONALITY HYPOTHESES: 1. Maternal Capacity Factor II (Harsh Control) will relate positively to Relational Insecurity and Tension and negatively to Ego Strength. 2. Prenatal parental attitude will relate positively to Ego Strength, negatively to Tension and Relational Insecurity. Zero-order correlations related independent and dependent variables. Specific hypotheses were tested by regression analyses. Significance of results was tested by F tests. RESULTS: All predictors correlated significantly at the 5% level of confidence with Compliance, Work Competence, Ego Strength, Friendliness, Relational Insecurity, Tension, Brightness and Need for Referral. These specific hypotheses were significant at the 5% level; Japanese Parentage, Maternal Education and Separation from Mother to Ego Strength; Japanese and Part-Hawaiian parentage to Work Competence; Japanese Parentage to Compliance. CONCLUSIONS: 1. The relationship between prenatal variables and child personality factors related to socialization was significant, but accounted for a small percentage of the variance. 2. Ethnic background, maternal education and separation from mother contributed uniquely to prediction of socialization of Kauai children.
Description: Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii, 1969. Bibliography: leaves 79-84. viii, 84 l tables
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Keywords: Personality, Child development

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