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Title: Demonstration on zymograms and genetic studies of some enzymes from human saliva 
Author: Tan, Soon Guan
Date: 1975
Abstract: Saliva samples were collected, processed, concentrated and then subjected to polyacrylamide flat slab gel electrophoresis followed by staining to detect enzyme activities. Six different enzyme activities were detected out of the fifty enzyme staining procedures attempted. Repeatable and constant variants were observed in three of these, saliva acid phosphatases, esterases and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). Genetic studies were done on these three. Seven phenotypes were found for saliva acid phosphatases. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of two loci, Sap-A with three alleles, A, A' and O, and Sap-B with 1 three alleles, B, B^1 , and O. These loci were found to be polymorphic in Americans of Japanese and Caucasian ancestries living in the State of Hawaii. Saliva esterases show a complex picture on zymograms and had been divided into four major regions. Variants were observed in region 1, the fastest anodal migrating region. Three phenotypes had been observed in region 1. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles, Set-IF and Set-IS. This locus is polymorphic in Americans of Japanese and Caucasian ancestries. Region I esterases are carboxylesterases. Saliva glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) showed three phenotypes on acrylamide gel zymograms. Family and population studies suggested that these phenotypes are the products of an autosomal locus with two alleles, Sgd 1 and Sgd 2. All the above three saliva enzymes in which variants were observed thus allowing genetic studies to be done proved to be different from the analogous enzymes with similar functions in the red blood cell. They constitute previously undescribed polymorphisms in the human species. The three other enzymes whose presence in the saliva had been detected on zymograms were an oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase and superoxide dimutase. No variants were observed for these enzymes which would enable genetic studies to be done. Association and linkage studies were attempted between the three newly described polymorphic saliva enzymes among themselves and between them and the ABH secretor status, Lewis A substance in saliva, ABO blood group, C5, adenosine deaminase, esterase D, PGM I , haptoglobin, Gc protein, MN blood group, P blood group, Duffy blood group, Kell blood group and Kidd blood group loci using data from random Caucasian individuals. Significant associations were only found between Sap-A and haptoglobin locus and between Set-l and MN blood group locus. These significant associations are most probably due to chance. Linkage studies were not very fruitful because of the small numbers of informative families available due to the small family size in most of the sampled families. None of the accumulative lod scores yielded conclusive results.
Description: Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1975. Bibliography: leaves 188-204. xiii, 204 leaves ill. (some col.)
Rights: All UHM dissertations and theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission from the copyright owner.
Keywords: Saliva, Enzymes, Human genetics

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