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Title: A Review of Biological Control Introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985 
Author: Funasaki, George Y.; Lai, Po-Yung; Nakahara, Larry M.; Beardsley, John W.; Ota, Asher K.
Date: 1988
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Funasaki GY, Lai PY, Nakahara LM, Beardsley JW, Ota AK. 1988. A review of biological control introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 28:105-160.
Abstract: Classical biological control has been practiced in Hawaii for almost a hundred years due to the influx of many new immigrant pest species into the Islands. Six hundred seventy-nine species of organisms were purposely introduced and released in Hawaii during 1890 to 1985 for the biological control of insects, weeds, and other pest species; 243 (35.8%) have become established. Two hundred ten (86.4%) of the 243 established species have been recorded to prey on or attack about 200 pest species. Of the 210, 64.6% (157 of 243 species) attack the intended target pests only, while 21.8% (53 of 243 species) attack both target and non-target pest species. The remaining 33 (13.6%) of the 243 established species have been reported to prey on or attack pest, native and/or beneficial species. Of the 33, 8.2% (20 or 243 species) have been reported from native species, 7.0% (17 of 243 species) from beneficial organisms. No purposely introduced species, approved for release in the past 21 years, has been recorded to attack any native or other desirable species.
Pages/Duration: 56 pages
ISSN: 0073-134X

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