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Title: A Preliminary Survey of Fly Breeding at Sanitary Landfills in Hawaii with an Evaluation of Landfill Practices and their Effect on Fly Breeding 
Author: Toyama, Gary M.
Date: 1988
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Toyama GM. 1988. A preliminary survey of fly breeding at sanitary landfills in Hawaii with an evaluation of landfill practices and their effect on fly breeding. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 28:49-56.
Abstract: Fly population surveys were conducted weekly over a five-month period at If) sanitary landfills on the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. Indices from flies captured on sticky traps made from commercial cockroach traps ranged from 0.78 ± 0.13 at a privately operated landfill to 106.76 i 9.19 at a county landfill. Distinctly higher indices occurred at landfills having less than daily refuse compaction and twice a week soil cover frequencies. Field and laboratory observations indicated that refuse compaction and soil covers did not prevent immature stages of flies already in buried incoming refuse from developing and emerging as adults. Results showed that flies were capable of emerging from refuse buried beneath 25 cm of moist (18.3% moisture content), bulldozer compacted soil cover. The failure of this thick soil cover in preventing fly emergence suggested that a cost-saving thinner layer of soil cover than presently required could be used to adequately maintain its other functions of reducing odors, preventing fires, and minimizing trash flyaway. The immediate consolidation and compaction of incoming refuse to deny ovipositional material to flies, and the application of a minimum twice a week soil cover to reduce odors that attract immigrant flies appeared to be major factors in fly control at landfills.
Pages/Duration: 8 pages
ISSN: 0073-134X

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