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Title: The "Forcipomyia ingrami" Complex in Hawaii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) 
Author: Wirth, Willis W; Howarth, Francis G
Date: 1982
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Wirth WW, Howarth FG. 1982. The "Forcipomyia ingrami" complex in Hawaii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 24:127-151.
Abstract: Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia are some of the most important pollinators of cacao and other tropical crop plants. A study of the species known as F. ingrami revealed that it has been misidentified, and that the African species formerly known as ingrami, now psilonota, does not occur in Hawaii. Instead there are at least four other species: palikuensis Hardy, a large, shining blackish species from Hawaii and East Maui; kaneohe n. sp., a small shining species from Oahu; pholeter n. sp., a small pale species living in lava tube caves on Hawaii; and hardyi n. sp., a dull brownish species which is extremely common on all the islands; all probably endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The immature stages of these midges, which breed in wet, decaying vegetation, leaf axils, and aquatic vegetation, have excellent characters diagnostic for species. Characters are illustrated and discussed showing how these species may be distinguished from their closely related congeners from the Pacific, Asia, and Africa. Forcipomyia clara Chan and LeRoux from Singapore is a junior synonym of F. sauteri Kieffer (N. SYNONYMY).
Pages/Duration: 25 pages
ISSN: 0073-134X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10125/11148

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