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Validity And Reliability Of The Hawai'i Anaerobic Run Test

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Title: Validity And Reliability Of The Hawai'i Anaerobic Run Test
Authors: Smith, Joseph H.
Issue Date: May 2005
Abstract: Energy required for the performance of exercise is produced via aerobic and anaerobic biochemical processes that collectively determine metabolic cost. Metabolic cost is assessed directly for the aerobic system (e.g. V02 max, ventilation, blood lactate, etc.), but is assessed indirectly for the anaerobic system (e.g. work, fatigue, etc.), since the substrata needed for direct quantification are located inside the muscle cell. These direct measurements require complex and invasive techniques such as muscle biopsy sampling and magnetic resonance procedures (Heck, Schultz, & Bartmus, 2003), which provide limited information specific to the muscle tissue sampled (Scott, Roby, Lohman, & Bunt, 1991). Consequently, a variety of anaerobic tests have been developed to indirectly quantify different components of the anaerobic metabolic processes, (PC-ATP and glycolytic contributions). Tests include laboratory tests (bicycle ergometer and treadmill tests), shuttle runs, and field tests. Currently the most frequently used and accepted anaerobic test is the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), which is designed to assess anaerobic capacity while cycling (Bulbulian, Jeong, & Murphy, 1996; Vandewalle, Peres, & Monod, 1987). The WAnT protocol involves 30 seconds of maximal exercise that results in second by second calculations of peak power, mean power, and percent power decrease. Wingate post exercise maximal blood lactate concentrations have been reported to correlate with total work output (Tamayo, Sucec, Philips, Bicono, & Laubach, 1984). Additionally, WAnT peak power has been identified as the defining variable between anaerobically and aerobically trained males (Tharp, Johnson, & Thorland, 1984; Taunton, Maron, & Wilkinson, 1981). While the muscle specificity of the WAnT makes it an acceptable test. of the anaerobic power of cyclists, it may not be accurate in predicting the anaerobic power of runners (Baker & Davies, 2002; Tharp, Newhouse, Uffelman, Thorland, & Johnson, 1985; Falk et al., 1996). Assessments of anaerobic capacity designed more specifically for runners include laboratory treadmill tests, shuttle run tests, and field sprint tests. Treadmill test accuracy is questionable for the following reasons, (l) inability to run at maximum speed, (2) difficulty finding an optimal stride, and (3) a decreased energy requirement (Schnabel, & Kindermann, 1983; Frishberg 1983). Shuttle run test accuracy is also questionable, since they are designed to assess agility and recovery capabilities. Sprint field test assessments include the use of maximal post-exercise blood lactate concentrations for varying distances, and sprint components such as total time, peak and mean velocity. Blood lactate is an accurate and reliable measure of lactic capacity as long as criteria such as recovery mode and sampling site are controlled (di Prampero, Peeters, & Margaria, 1973). Thus, a direct correlation between blood lactate levels and running performances at different distances exists (Lacour, Bouvat, & Barthelemy, 1990; Ohkuwa, Kats, Katsumata, Nakao, & Miyamura, 1984; Borsetto, et al., 1989). Peak blood lactate concentrations have also correlated significantly with velocity over the last 165 meters of a 200-meter sprint (Hautier et al., 1994). However, blood lactate concentrations should be used in conjunction with other data such as peak velocity, mean velocity, and deceleration to assess anaerobic potential. Maximal attained running speed (peak velocity) is described as the best predictor of performance in 100 and ISO-meter sprints of men (Berthoin, Dupont, Mary, & Gerbeaux, 2001; Volkov & Lapin, 1979) and can distinguish between trained sprinters and novice runners (Volkov & Lapin, 1979). Therefore, an anaerobic assessment test designed specifically for runners should be developed. The optimal duration of this anaerobic run test should be 20-30 seconds to allow a sufficient amount of time to stress the phosphagen and anaerobic glycolytic systems (Thompson, 1981; Green & Dawson, 1993). A two hundred meter sprint would approximate the 20-30 second duration as female sprinters complete this distance in approximately 22 seconds. Consequently, the "average" female and male should complete this distance in 25-35 seconds. As such, a 200-meter sprint would simulate the duration of the WAnT (30 seconds), which has been proven to be a reliable test of anaerobic capacity (Bar-Or, 1987). Additionally, since blood lactate concentration has been commonly used for a marker of anaerobic energy production, as it is an end product of anaerobic glycolysis, it should be used along with other variables (e.g. velocity, fatigue) to assess the anaerobic capacity of runners. The purpose this research study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Hawaii Anaerobic Run Test (HART) The following hypotheses were made: 1) there will be no difference in lactate concentrations between the WAnT and the HART; 2) there will be no difference in lactate concentrations, time, or velocity between two trials of the HART; and 3) correlation for lactate concentrations, time, and velocity, will be high between two trials of the HART.
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Appears in Collections:M.S. - Kinesiology and Leisure Science

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