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Title: Life History Observations on Thrips florum (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Infesting Gardenia in Hawaii, and a Comparison of the Humidity Requirements for T. florum and Frankliniella occidentalis 
Author: Hollingsworth, Robert G.
Date: 2003-11
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Hollingsworth RG. 2003. Life history observations on Thrips florum (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting gardenia in Hawaii, and a comparison of the humidity requirements for T. florum and Frankliniella occidentalis. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 36:79–88.
Abstract: Thrips florum Schumtz is a common pest of gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) flowers in Hawaii. Typically hundreds of thrips infest each flower, and their feeding and egg laying punctures result in a brown discoloration of the white petals. The life cycle and biology of this pest was studied on gardenia flowers to facilitate proper timing of control procedures. This is possibly the first report on the developmental biology of this species. In laboratory tests, the development period from egg to adult female required a minimum of 17 days at 20°C and 11 days at 24°C. Significant proportions of second instars, propupae and pupae were found off the flower and resting on the bottoms or sides of rearing containers. Difficulty in rearing insects led to the observation that adults could not tolerate even short exposures to low or moderate levels of relative humidity (RH). In controlled humidity tests, only 19% of T. florum survived a 24-hour exposure to 92.5% RH, whereas this level was tolerated by >90% of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). In field studies, the number of T. florum infesting gardenia blossoms in a 2-acre gardenia planting typically exceeded 200 adults per flower. Removing all open gardenia blossoms from the field once per week was associated with large reductions in the thrips population and an elimination of noticeable damage to flower buds.
ISSN: 0073-134X
Keywords: Thrips florum, Frankliniella occidentalis, Gardenia jasminoides, life history, life cycle, insect development, flowers, temperature, relative humidity, biological resistance, mortality, cultural control, species differences, Hawaii, insect pests, Thysanoptera

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