Ocean Engineering
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/2121
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 01:03:50 GMT2014-07-29T01:03:50ZCylindrical liquid-liquid jet instability
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/11767
Mode of access: World Wide Web.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 294-300).; Electronic reproduction.; Also available by subscription via World Wide Web; xxxvii, 300 leaves, bound ill. (some col.) 29 cm
Thu, 01 Jan 2004 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/117672004-01-01T00:00:00ZTang, LiujuanEvaluation of flexible hull types for very large floating structures
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10011
In this study, Very Large Floating Structures (VLFS) of different hull forms (semisubmersible and mat-like) are evaluated on the basis of their hull motions and structural responses. Some suggestions and recommendations are provided for selecting a configuration. The theory of linear hydroelasticity is applied to the analysis. The success of such an analysis of VLFS by means of available computers rests on the development of three efficient hydroelastic analysis methods that significantly reduce the CPU time and the required computational storage. The first method employs the modified Morison's equation and linear structural dynamic theory. The hydrodynamic coefficients in the modified Morison's equation, are obtained using the extended MacCamy & Fuchs' method for the columns and the strip theory for the pontoons, respectively. The method predicts better results at higher wave frequencies than does the Morison's equation method. In the second method, the simplified zero-draft Green function is employed in the hydrodynamic analysis and in the structural analysis a mat-like floating body is modeled as an equivalent floating plate. These two efforts result in significant CPU savings. The mathematical model of the last method employs a three-dimensional hydroelasticity theory. Two techniques are introduced to increase the computational efficiency of this method. One is related to the convergency of the Green function and the other involves the use of an iterative sparse solver for the linear system of equations. This method is especially efficient for the analysis of a VLFS in terms of CPU and storage. Hence, it has been possible to analyze the hydroelastic response of a VLFS with the available computer resources.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1995.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 180-193).; Microfiche.; xxi, 193 leaves, bound ill 29 cm
Sun, 01 Jan 1995 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100111995-01-01T00:00:00ZWang, SuqinSystem design of a high data rate oceanographic telemetry buoy
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10010
A full-scale prototype of a small (2.3-m diameter) high data rate telemetry buoy is designed, built and tested. A unique hybrid configuration consisting of a toroidal disc and spar configuration is developed through an iterative design process which includes both numerical and experimental techniques. Full-scale ocean tests are conducted with the system instrumented to measure buoy dynamics. Environmental conditions including current and wind speed and direction as well as wave height and direction are measured and recorded. The buoy is demonstrated to exhibit dynamics which permit 2-way communications to a geostationary satellite from an inertially stabilized antenna in conditions though sea state 4. The buoy's displacement, dimensions, mass and mass distribution are all varied both analytically and through experiments to arrive at a configuration which, prior to ocean testing, appears to exhibit the desired attribute of minimizing roll and pitch motions. A frequency domain analysis of the buoy/mooring system is used as a design tool in developing the full-scale prototype. Data collected during the sea trials is reduced for comparison with the predicted motions.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1995.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-141).; Microfiche.; xi, 141 leaves, bound ill., maps 29 cm
Sun, 01 Jan 1995 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100101995-01-01T00:00:00ZClark, Andrew MalcolmSea level rise and coastal erosion in the Hawaiian Islands
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10009
Time series and the power spectral distributions of relative sea levels are analyzed at selected tide-gauge stations in the western and central North Pacific between equator and about 30°N, in association with different time scales of motions. Coastal response to these sea-level dynamics is discussed in detail, based on the aerial photographs of shoreline changes. Wave climate around the Hawaiian Islands as well as surf conditions on Oahu are examined for simulating cross-shore beach erosion processes with an energetics-based sediment transport model. Long-term trend of relative sea-level rise during the past several decades (+1 to +5 cm/decade at most of the tide-gauge stations) is primarily affected by the local tectonism such as volcanic loading, plate movement and reef evolution, and subduction at the plate boundaries. Continual volcanic loading at Kilauea, Hawaii results in consequential subsidence of the Hawaiian Islands. Secondary reason for sea-level rise is the thermal expansion of sea surface waters due to global warming by increasing greenhouse gases, which may be potentially more significant in the near future. Interannual sea-level fluctuations, associated with ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) phenomena, seem to be the primary factor to cause serious beach erosion (up to 10 times the long-term trend). Mean annual cycle of sea level (H ≈ 10 cm) and alternate annual wave conditions are the main causes of the cross-shore oscillation of sediment transport, although there is still some loss of sediments to deep-water region. Short-term change of beach profiles is basically caused by incoming wave conditions as well as sea-level height, sediment characteristics, and underlying geology. Simulations by a cross-shore sediment transport model show that higher waves result in faster offshore transport and deeper depth of active profile change, and that beach recovery process is usually much slower than the erosion process, especially after a storm surge. Deep erosion during a storm surge can not be recovered for much longer duration by mild post-storm waves, but may be partly recovered by non-breaking long waves such as longer-period swells.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1995.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 181-188).; Microfiche.; xvii, 188 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Sun, 01 Jan 1995 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100091995-01-01T00:00:00ZJeon, DongchullDesign and performance evaluation of a wave-driven artificial upwelling device
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10008
A wave-driven artificial upwelling device, consisting of a floating buoy, an inner water chamber, a long tail pipe, and two flow-controlling valves, was developed for this research. Hydrodynamic performance of the device to pump up nutrient rich deep ocean water is evaluated by mathematical modeling analysis and hydraulic laboratory experiments. The mathematical model of the device is made up of four simultaneous differential equations. The first three equations, which describe the motion of upwelled water inside the device, were formulated based on momentum and mass conservation principles. The fourth equation is the equation of motion of the device in ambient waves. The model is solved numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The equation of motion of the device in ambient waves contains several parameters, including added mass ,damping coefficient, wave exciting force and restoring coefficient. Values of these parameters must be determined before the model equations can be solved. In order to determine these variables, a hydrodynamic problem of wave-device interactions must be solved. The boundary element method is used to solve this hydrodynamic problem of radiation and diffraction. Modeling results are verified by a series of hydraulic experiments conducted in a wave basin in the James K. K. Look Laboratory of Oceanographic Engineering at the University of Hawaii. Comparing analytical and experimental results yields some useful information concerning hydrodynamic coefficients under waves of large amplitude. The mathematical model developed in this study was then used to evaluate the effects of five configuration variables on the rate of upwelling flow at the design wave conditions, and to establish design criteria.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993.; Microfiche.; xxvi, 196 leaves, bound 29 cm
Fri, 01 Jan 1993 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100081993-01-01T00:00:00ZChen, XiaohuaTechniques for hydroelastic analysis of very large floating structures
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10007
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993.; Microfiche.; xx, 226 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Fri, 01 Jan 1993 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100071993-01-01T00:00:00ZChe, XilingNearshore circulation and sediment transport
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10006
The project of "Sand for Hawaiian Beaches" is briefly described in the introduction. Mathematical models are developed to simulate 3-D coastal current structure and to predict the fate of suspended sediments due to offshore sand dredging and dumping operations, thus providing an effective tool for environmental impact assessments. A 2-DH hydrodynamics model provides necessary input and boundary conditions to the 3-D flow model. The effects of waves are incorporated in these models through the wave radiation stresses and thus the models possess the capability of predicting the wave induced longshore and rip currents. A wave transformation model is applied to calculate the radiation stresses and the energy dissipation due to wave breaking and bottom friction. Wind effects are also included through the 2-DH model. The 3-D flow model gives the current field for the 3-D suspended sediment transport model, which deals with fine sand transport due to dredging and dumping operations. The sediment transport model predicts the suspended sediment concentrations and the accumulation of sand on the bottom. The finite volume method as described by Patankar is employed for the 2-D water circulation models as well as for the 3-D suspended sediment transport model. For the 3-D circulation model, a time split technique is applied in order to handle different physical mechanisms separately and a vertical coordinate transformation is employed to obtain convenient finite difference schemes. Effects of the dredging pit on the stability of the bottom profile and of the beach are studied using Ballard's sediment transport model. The filling and the erosion related to the dredging pit are estimated with a 2-DV hydrodynamics model, a k-e turbulence model, and the SUTRENCH sediment transport model. The models are applied to the coastal region off Waikiki and the computational results show that the dredging operation at the Halekulani sand channel has no noticeable adverse effects on the bottom profiles and on the beach. A 24-hour continuous dredging operation will result in a sand deposition of 0.1mm on the nearest live coral area under normal South Swell wave conditions and the assumed critical deposition and erosion shear stresses.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 198-215).; Microfiche.; xxviii, 215 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Fri, 01 Jan 1993 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100061993-01-01T00:00:00ZWang, NengjiaThermodynamic analysis of an OC-OTEC system in the direct- contact condenser configuration incorporating predeaeration and reinjection
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10005
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 378-382); Microfiche.; xvii, 382 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Fri, 01 Jan 1993 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100051993-01-01T00:00:00ZOney, Stephen KeithNonlinear forces and response of floating platforms in regular and random waves
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10004
Floating platforms in the ocean are subjected to mean and low-frequency drift forces, and high-frequency springing forces in addition to the first-order forces in the wave-frequency range. These forces, which are caused by both potential and viscous effects, can induce large amplitude, resonant response of platforms due to the near absence of damping at such frequencies. In this study, a frequency-domain method based on the relative velocity formulation of Morison's equation is presented to compute viscous drift forces and moments in regular and random waves. The method, which is applied to a semisubmersible and tension-leg platforms, indicates significant mean forces and moments in surge, pitch and yaw modes of the platform motion. The combined effect of waves and current, variable submergence of platform members and computation of forces in the displaced location of the platform appear to have a pronounced effect on the computed drift forces and moments. It is shown that the viscous drift forces are important in the long-period range and hence must be considered under design wave conditions. A time-domain model which uses Morison's equation method for force computations is developed to simulate platform motions. This model can include most of the nonlinearities such as the nonlinear drag force, effect of finite wave elevation, nonlinear restoration of the positioning system and nonlinearities in the equations of motion of the platform. The viscous drift forces and response obtained from the frequency-domain method are compared with results from time-domain simulations. Good agreement has been found for the forces and response, both in regular and random waves. This frequency-domain method can be used to predict viscous drift forces and response in the preliminary design stage and for parametric studies due to its superior computational efficiency as compared to the time-domain simulations. The effect of the nonlinear drag force, in inducing higher-harmonic forces and tether-tension response, has been studied using the time-domain simulation results together with power spectral methods. For the wave and current conditions used in this study, second- and higher-harmonic drag force and tether-tension response are observed in regular, bi-chromatic and random waves and current. Inclusion of current is shown to affect the nonlinear response of the platform. Another theoretical model, based on the application of linear potential theory in the time domain, to simulate large amplitude nonlinear motions of platforms is also presented. The theory is based on the combination of potential and viscous flow effects in the time domain to determine forces acting on the platform. Hydrodynamic coefficients and wave excitation forces, obtained a priori from the linear, three-dimensional potential theory, are included in the nonlinear, large amplitude simulation model for platform motions. First-order memory effects are included through velocity based convolution integrals. The results obtained from this simulation model are compared with those obtained using Morison's equation model and the agreement is found to be good. It is believed that this method, due to its ability to model both potential and viscous-flow effects accurately in a large amplitude motion simulation model, will give better predictions to the various nonlinear effects mentioned above.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1992.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 206-218).; Microfiche.; xix, 218 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Wed, 01 Jan 1992 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100041992-01-01T00:00:00ZChitrapu, SrinivasamurthyDevelopment of a solar pond system design computer model
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10003
The purpose of this dissertation was the development of a solar pond system design computer model which incorporates a number of unique features which might help to improve the validity of simulation results and the design and performance of solar ponds. The computer model developed for this study extends previous treatments of internal reflection by: (1) dividing the spectrum into a finite umber of spectral wavelength bands (five), assuming an average extinction coefficient for each wavelength band and separately evaluating the effects of internal reflection and absorption on each wavelength band; (2) separately evaluating diffuse and direct radiation components; and (3) extending equations developed for a single-fluid solar pond to two- and three-fluid solar ponds. This latter feature, when combined with appropriate heat transfer and stability relationships, allows the comparison of simulations of various multi-fluid solar ponds (e.g., gel or immiscible solar ponds) to that of a salt gradient solar pond. Furthermore, through manipulation of these governing equations, the performance of membrane stratified solar ponds, or ponds with four, or more, fluids can also be simulated and compared to other types. A second unique feature of this computer model is its ability to evaluate various methods of augmenting the performance of solar ponds. Methods of augmentation include the use of deep, cold seawater as a heat sink and auxiliary heat sources such as high temperature solar, waste heat, and fossil or biomass fuels. A number of simulation runs were conducted. Among the major conclusions are: (l) the computer model developed provides reasonable, but more conservative projections of solar pond performance; (2) the effects of wind mixing, convective overturn and internal reflection are significant and may have to be controlled; (3) solar pond performance can be significantly improved by augmentation, with use of cold, deep sea water and superheating of working fluid vapor showing considerable promise; and (4) further work is required to more effectively use the equations developed for multi-fluid solar ponds. In particular, suitable fluids need to be identified and their radiation transmission and other fluid properties and heat transfer mechanisms need to be better characterized
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1991.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 211-217); Microfiche.; xx, 217 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Tue, 01 Jan 1991 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100031991-01-01T00:00:00ZRezachek, David ATsunami runup in coastal regions
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10002
In this study wave runup from tsunamis in coastal regions is investigated. The objective of this study is to develop a computational method to determine the runup of tsunami waves using the method of characteristics. This study limits itself to waves arriving at the coastline perpendicularly, and depth contours are assumed parallel to the shoreline. In the runup calculation for a bore-type tsunami energy losses due to bottom friction and to breaking are considered. The runup results obtained from the method of characteristics in which energy losses due to bottom friction are considered, compare favorably with those of Bretschneider and Wybro (1976) and with Amein's (1964) numerical results. When energy losses due to both friction and W6ve:breaking are considered the results of the calculations compare well with experimental results by Miller (1968). The runup calculations are applied to a few characteristic situations on Oahu, taking into consideration historical tsunami data.
Typescript.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1990.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152-156); Microfiche.; xi, 156 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Mon, 01 Jan 1990 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100021990-01-01T00:00:00ZYücel, Feyza AyseEstimating ocean wave directional spectra from measurements of water particle motion by a surface buoy acoustic ranging system
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10001
An instrumentation design is presented for estimating ocean wave directional spectra from measurements of water particle motion. For relatively shallow water and short term measurement applications, it is shown to be an effective and reasonably accurate system for estimating ocean wave directional spectra. Specifically, water particle motion is measured using an underwater, acoustic, ranging system consisting of a surface projector buoy and suitable bottom mounted hydrophones. A continuous wave signal is emitted by the surface projector buoy and the resultant signal delays at each hydrophone provide slant range information for triangulating the buoy position. Signals from the buoy and hydrophones are recorded for later processing and analysis. A method for estimating wave amplitude, phase, and direction is also presented. Wave data obtained from a commercial bottom mounted pressure gauge serve as a reference for comparing water particle displacement measurements recorded by the instrumentation system. Similarly, aerial photographs taken of the wave field in the study area during the experiment were used as a reference for comparing wave directions.
Typescript.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1990.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 121-125); Microfiche.; xv, 125 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Mon, 01 Jan 1990 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100011990-01-01T00:00:00ZBenevides, Francis LeoWave overtopping and partial standing waves
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/10000
In this study, first the surface displacement of standing waves IS derived from the finite amplitude approximation when the wave elevation exceed a breakwater with a vertical wall. Some important phenomena related to wave motion are also studied. Second, a basic concept is explained to obtain a total amount of wave overtopping, considering the property of standing waves in front of the vertical wall. Third, computer experiments are carried out In order to estimate the surface displacement of waves and the total amount of wave overtopping. These calculations are compared with the results of laboratory experiments. A perturbation method representing a non-linear gravity water waves is applied to the vertical displacement of the water surface and the velocity potential to derive a standing wave equation at wave overtopping. The author gives consideration to the solution of Goda and Abe (1968), who dealt with the standing wave as a combination of incident wave, reflective wave and bound wave (secondary effect by two waves) and calculated the surface displacement for various wave conditions. In this study this method is expanded to predict the temporal and spatial free surface displacement, the reflection effect, and the effect to the incident wave height in front of the breakwater when the crest level of the breakwater is lowered below the maximum wave elevation and the wave overtopping takes place. In addition to the non-linear treatment of the standing wave, the wave crest and trough levels and the variation of mean water level are studied to ascertain the interaction of waves and structure in non-overtopping and overtopping conditions. A theoretical investigation is conducted to study the behavior of wave overtopping in the presence of a vertical wall. A hypothesis is proposed to calculate the quantity of overtopping water during an entire wave period. The hypothesis is based on the energy equation. The total amount of wave overtopping is calculated by integrating a function of the free surface elevations of perfect and partial standing waves at the vertical wall. Experiments were performed to verify the theories in a two-dimensional wave channel where a vertical breakwater model was placed. The surface displacement of partial standing waves was measured at several points between the breakwater and 150cm from the breakwater. The surface displacements, calculated using the finite amplitude method are shown to be in agreement with test data for which the crest levels of the breakwater were chosen 4cm, and 8cm above still water level, and above maximum wave elevations. The comparison of results of the numerical method of wave overtopping with data obtained from measurements by another investigator, shows a reasonable agreement despite the simple hypothesis that was assumed.
Typescript.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1989.; Includes bibliographical references.; Microfiche.; xix, 113 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Sun, 01 Jan 1989 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/100001989-01-01T00:00:00ZUmeyama, MotohikoGas exchange in seawater with special emphasis on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/9999
Typescript.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1988.; Bibliography: leaves 317-327.; Photocopy.; Microfilm.; xix, 327 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/9999Zapka, Manfred JürgenBottom shear stress, wave height and wave set-up under wave transformation
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/9998
This study is concerned with the influence of wave transformation and bed shear stress on wave height and wave set-up. The ultimate goal is the prediction of wave height and mean water level in the nearshore zone. In order to develop such a predictive model, relevant empirical relationships were determined based on data measured during a two-dimensional hydraulic model study with a scale of 1:12 representing the Ala Moana reef on the south shore of Oahu. For predicting the wave height from deep water to inside the breaker zone, a new empirical relationship is obtained for the parameters, H/nrms, and Pa=Ha/Lacoth^2(D/La). The relationship is based on data from this experiment and from Hansen and Svendsen (1979). The hydraulic model used in this study had a compound slope of roughly 0, 1:80, 1:32 and 1:20, while Hansen and Svendsen used a plane slope of 1:34. The bed shear stress was determined by direct measurements of wave forces on the bed and of fluid velocities near the bed under breaking waves and other highly nonlinear waves. The resulting friction factors are compared with the existing friction factor curve by Jonsson (1964), which was established under sinusoid81 wave conditions. Under the assumption that the dominant factors for the dissipation of energy are bottom friction and the wave breaking phenomenon, the energy dissipation is determined based on linear wave theory for the friction loss and on bore similarity for the breaking loss. Correction factors to these theoretical dissipations are empirically obtained. The effect of the mean shear stress on wave set-up is examined by comparing measured mean water levels with results calculated using the computational procedure developed in this study. It is concluded that the new curve for wave height prediction is applicable in the entire nearshore region, even in the breaking zone, at least for slopes ranging from 0 to 1:34. The Jonsson's friction factor curve for rough turbulence, developed from linear waves, accurately predicts friction factors for highly nonlinear waves, provided that an appropriate particle amplitude at the bed is used. The mean shear stress, which is usually considered to be negligible, is important in the calculation of wave set-up.
Typescript.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Hawaii, 1985.; Bibliography: leaves 132-136.; Photocopy.; xxiii, 136 leaves, bound ill. 29 cm
Tue, 01 Jan 1985 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/99981985-01-01T00:00:00ZNakazaki, EijiAdvanced marine vehicle products database preliminary design tool
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/7015
The term advanced marine vehicle encompasses a broad category of ship designs typically referring to multihull ships such as catamarans, trimarans and SWATH (small waterplane area twin hull) ships, but also includes hovercrafts, SES (surface effect ships), hydrofoils, and advanced monohulls. This study develops an early stage design tool for advanced marine vehicles that provides principal particulars and additional parameters such as fuel capacity and propulsive power based on input ship requirements. This is accomplished by compiling a product database of existing advanced marine vehicles for the development of relationships between ship characteristic parameters. The relationships are analyzed using both the multiple regression analysis and a neural network. Because of the scatter of the data, the first order or linear multiple regression analysis is adopted. The neural network, on the other hand, is a non-linear learning tool that uses existing ship parameters to predict future ship designs. The results are compared with the actual ship parameters to validate the preliminary design tools. The Maui High Performance Computing Center has developed a geographic information system interface for the statistical tools and databases with the additional capabilities to analyze ocean wave environment for the definition of ship design requirements.
ix, 89 leaves
Fri, 01 Aug 2003 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/70152003-08-01T00:00:00ZWoo, Kristen A L GAnalysis of harbor oscillation with a boussinesq model
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/6998
Seiches or long-wave oscillations in harbors are normally the result of nonlinear interactions within groups of narrow-banded wind waves and swell. These oscillations may cause excessive vessel motions and disrupt loading and unloading operations at port facilities. Accurate prediction of harbor oscillation patterns is therefore an important aspect in harbor design. Most previous studies have used linear models to predict these nonlinear oscillation behaviors. This study uses an extended Boussinesq model that is applicable from deep to shallow water and takes into account the generation mechanism of these oscillations along with their interaction with the wind waves or swell. The finite difference model utilizes a predictor-corrector scheme to march the solution forward in time. It has a moving boundary algorithm to account for wave swashing, thereby allowing the correct boundary condition to be imposed at shorelines. The model is applied to examine the natural oscillation modes at Barbers Point Harbor and Kahului Harbor located on the West and North shores of Oʻahu and Maui respectively. The computed responses at each harbor are compared with previous linear model results and data gathered from pressure sensors. The analysis shows that harbor oscillation is primarily excited by infragravity waves, which can be simulated by a Boussinesq model.
x, 62 leaves
Fri, 01 Aug 2003 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/69982003-08-01T00:00:00ZDouyere, Yann M JEffect of particle shape on grain size, hydraulic, and transport characteristics of calcareous sand
http://hdl.handle.net/10125/6875
This study examines the grain size, fall velocity, initiation of motion, and sediment transport rates of calcareous sand collected on Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi. These characteristics are unique to calcareous sand owing to the irregular shape of the particles and are distinct from those of siliceous sand, which have been studied extensively with well-documented results. Through a series of laboratory experiments and data analyses, this study provides a comprehensive data set of calcareous sand characteristics and quantifies their dependence on particle shape. Sand samples were selected from the swash zones of Oʻahu beaches. Sieve and settling techniques separate the samples into groups by sieve size and fall velocity, respectively. Individual grain properties such as shape factor, intermediate dimension, fall velocity, and nominal and equivalent diameters for 998 grains within those groups are presented. Evaluation of the grain size data by sieve and settling groups provides empirical relationships between the median sieve size of the sand samples and the corresponding nominal and equivalent diameters. The fall velocity and drag coefficient expressed respectively as functions of nominal diameter and Reynolds number show strong correlation over a wide range of shape factors. Analysis of the data by flow regime shows that particle shape has stronger influence on the settling characteristics when unstable wakes develop behind the grains. These findings are used to interpret the initiation of motion of four natural and five sieved calcareous sand samples in unidirectional flow. Flume experiments provide the sediment transport rate as a function of bed shear stress up to bed-form development. Reference-based criteria are supplemented by visual observations to determine the critical shear stress. The results are compared with published data for rounded and irregular particles in terms of the median sieve size and median nominal and equivalent diameters over Reynolds number. The critical shear stresses of the irregular particles, in comparison with data for rounded particles, are higher in the hydraulically smooth regime and lower in the rough turbulent regime. Finally, the transport of calcareous sand in unidirectional flow and its prediction through existing sediment transport models are examined. Flume experiments provide 70 sets of sediment transport data and the results are compared with direct predictions from five published sediment transport models developed for siliceous particles. Corrections for the grain size and hydraulic characteristics of calcareous sand developed in this study are applied and the results are compared with the direct calculations. The comparisons show that one of the models gives good results before calcareous sand corrections are considered and another responds well when the corrections are applied. This analysis provides guidelines to the application of existing sediment transport models to calcareous beaches and the gathered data lays a foundation for future model development.
xii, 99 leaves
Fri, 01 Aug 2003 00:00:00 GMThttp://hdl.handle.net/10125/68752003-08-01T00:00:00ZSmith, David A